gives a complete understanding of CSS, starting from its basics to advanced We strive to update the contents of our website and tutorials as timely and as. the property of their respective owners. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. HTML & CSS. DeSign anD. To do this, we use a W3C technology called Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) . The body of the style sheet (lines 15–22) declares the CSS rules for the style.
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Creates a single file containing the resolved, or merged DITA map with all its topics. prehexfejefne.tk XSLT post-processing. prehexfejefne.tk CSS styles and obtain the PDF. All 18 chapters of CSS Basics in one downloadable, printable PDF file: Download CSS Basics PDF*. So once you have mastered all the tricks behind CSS you. However, CSS is also being used to format books, catalogs and brochures to turn your HTML and CSS into a PDF using these specifications.
Left and Right Page Spreads Another aspect of the page model is that it defines pseudo-class selectors for the left and right pages of your document. We can use these selectors to define different margin sizes for our pages. The :first selector targets the first page of a document. As you will discover, generated content is vitally important to creating our book. For example, if we want to add the title of the book to the bottom-left margin box of right-hand pages, we would do this using generated content.
As already described, once the content fills a page area, it will move onto a new page.
If a heading has just been written to the page, you might end up with a page that finishes with a heading, with the related content beginning on the next page. In a printed book, you would try to avoid this situation.
Other places you might want to avoid a break are in the middle of a table and between a figure and its caption. Starting a new chapter of a book with an h1 heading is common.
To force this heading to always be the beginning of a page, set page-break-before to always. We can actually add these numbers via CSS, saving us from having to renumber everything because we decided to, say, add a new figure partway through a chapter. We do this using CSS counters.
The obvious place to start is with page numbers. CSS gives us a predefined page counter; it starts at 1 and increments with every new page. In your style sheet, you would use this counter as the value of generated content, to put the page counter in one of your margin boxes.
In the example below, we are adding page numbers to the bottom-right of right-hand pages and the bottom-left of left-hand pages. This counter will always be the total number of pages in your document. To create a counter, use the counter-reset property, increment it with counter-increment. The CSS rules below will create a counter for chapters named chapternum and increment it with each h1 — being the start of a chapter in this book. A common way to number figures is to use chapternum.
On the h1, we could reset figurenum in order that it starts from 1 for each chapter. We do this using a property named string-set in the selector that we want to take the content from. For the chapter title, this would be the h1.
The value of string-set is the name you would like to give this content and then content.
You can then output this as generated content using string. The way footnotes work is that you would add the text of your footnote inline, wrapped in HTML tags probably a span , with a class to identify it as a footnote. We are all well used to creating a style sheet that is called upon when a web document is printed.
However, CSS is also being used to format books, catalogs and brochures — content that may never have been designed to be a web page at all. However, Prince has a free version that can be used for non-commercial use, making it a good tool to try out these examples.
HTML becomes a handy format to standardize on, far easier to deal with than having everything in a Word document or a traditional desktop publishing package. The biggest difference, and conceptual shift, is that printed documents refer to a page model that is of a fixed size.
Whereas on the web we are constantly reminded that we have no idea of the size of the viewport, in print the fixed size of each page has a bearing on everything that we do. Due to this fixed page size, we have to consider our document as a collection of pages, paged media, rather than the continuous media that is a web page. Paged media introduces concepts that make no sense on the web.
You might need to create cross-references and footnotes, indexes and tables of content from your document. You could import the document into a desktop publishing package and create all of this by hand, however, the work would then need redoing the next time you update the copy. This is where CSS comes in, whose specifications are designed for use in creating paged media.
Much of the CSS you already know will be useful for formatting for print. The page rule lets you specify various aspects of a page box. For example, you will want to specify the dimensions of your pages. The rule below specifies a default page size of 5. If you intend to print a book, perhaps by a print-on-demand service, then finding out the sizes you can use is important. Before going any further, we should understand how the page model for paged media works, because it behaves somewhat differently to how things work on screen.
The page model defines a page area and then 16 surrounding margin boxes. You can control the size of the page area and the size of the margin between the edge of the page area and the end of the page itself. The table in the specification explains very well how these boxes are sized. When it runs out of room, another page will be created.
The margin boxes are used only for CSS-generated content. Another aspect of the page model is that it defines pseudo-class selectors for the left and right pages of your document. Two other pseudo-class selectors are defined.
In the last example, we used CSS-generated content to add the text to the top-center margin box. As you will discover, generated content is vitally important to creating our book. For example, if we want to add the title of the book to the bottom-left margin box of right-hand pages, we would do this using generated content.
As already described, once the content fills a page area, it will move onto a new page. If a heading has just been written to the page, you might end up with a page that finishes with a heading, with the related content beginning on the next page. In a printed book, you would try to avoid this situation. Other places you might want to avoid a break are in the middle of a table and between a figure and its caption.
Starting a new chapter of a book with an h1 heading is common. To force this heading to always be the beginning of a page, set page-break-before to always. Books are all about numbering things — pages, chapters, even figures. We can actually add these numbers via CSS, saving us from having to renumber everything because we decided to, say, add a new figure partway through a chapter.
Here are some useful references:. The user doesn't really often want anything else other then that: This list will keep me busy for awhile. We're creating reports from database queries - the results will be printed on the screen but we also want the user to be able to convert them into PDF files so they can print them.
So I have to write the CSS for that, right?
And that's part of what gets converted to the PDF? I've never done this before so may not be asking the right questions but basically, we need a way to create and format the PDFs.
Does the information change from one viewer to the next? If not, you could offer a pdf version for download, or allow the user to print out the on-screen information. The developer has told me he's going to use one of the utilities available but I don't know which one. My job is to come up with HTML prototypes and formatting for the various reports. Also, even "intra-user", they'll be given choices over the variables that get included in the reports so yes, the content will vary each time.
For the most part, our users will not be particularly sophisticated and most will be Windows users so we need to be able to make it easy for them.
I'm not opposed to just having them print out the on-screen information if there's a way to maintain at least some formatting control over it. Some of the reports will be medical billing statements, etc. Well, you can certainly make it look very nice.